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Benefits of Weight Training in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Population

The chemical called Dopamine takes part in a huge role in our body as it carries signals between cells to create movement. Dopamine is produced in nerve cells or neurons from this particular part of brain called substantia nigra which is in basal ganglia, however, these dopaminergic neurons becomes dysfunctional due mostly to environmental factors (exposure to chemicals, head trauma, etc.) thereby leading to Parkinson’s Disease (PD) (Roeder et al., 2015). Generally, the exact causes of PD are unknown but most experts agree that genetics participate insignificantly in inducing PD compared to environmental factors. People with PD, due to the insufficient amount of dopamine in the brain, end up with several motor symptoms which include: slowness of movement (bradykinesia),  tremor at rest,  stiffness of the body,  and impaired balance (Roeder et al., 2015).  These symptoms regarding muscular controlcan be improved in several ways and weight training together with flexibility and balance train…
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Nutrition for Muscle Health in Senior Population

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Sarcopenia is one of the major health conditions that causes decline in quality of life in senior population. Sarcopenia, which was covered in a previous blog, is a gradual loss of muscle mass, typically with aging at 1-2% per year starting around age of 50 (Marcell, 2003). The lack of muscle mass maintenance and strength escalates the tendency to fall, leading to increased risk of fractures and injuries!  Performing exercise regularly helps maintaining healthy physical status, especially resistance training, but keeping optimal daily nutrition is also very important to aid in recovery and muscle growth from each workout and thereby maintaining muscle functions. Thus we are going to review three nutritional tips that may be beneficial for preventing muscle loss and other detrimental physical changes with aging.

There are several nutritional strategies that are considered beneficial if you apply it to your daily diet. First, make sure of having sufficient intake …

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease affects

Actively preventingheart disease is preferable to treating it!

Prevention is a less stressful, and less invasive method of staying healthy.

...however prevention may be a moot point, as heart disease is a chronic disease, meaning that while it can be treated, it cannot be cured, similar to diabetes. Once you are afflicted with heart disease, it will become a lifelong condition to manage. we speak of prevention in terms of the CVD affects or symptoms, and actively reducing their affects on our health and vitality.  

What is Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)?
It is a general term for a series of conditions and symptoms within the body which cause changes within the cardiovascular system. They cause insufficiencies in blood, oxygen and nutrient transfer.
CVD may include:
Coronary heart disease includes atherosclerosis or arteriolosclerosis where the arteries are negatively affected while leading to blockages, to chest pain, to heart attacks (MI's). StrokeArrhythmiasHigh blood pressurePeri…

How important is WATER ?

So, we have ALL been told to drink more water, increase your fluids, hydrate!

...well, on the same token, those of us who have kidney issues or diabetes or heart issues (with diuretics) or congestive heart issues or bladder issues need to watch how much and when we drink water.

What is one to do? How important is water?

To begin, here is what water is responsible for doing in the body:
helps to control body temperatureaids the digestive processprocess energy and nutrients to tissues in the bodyaids healingaids detoxification for regular bowels and urinationcushions organs and jointsmuscle needs hydration for bulk and functionskin healthbrain healthWhat gets in the way of good hydration?
LaxativesDiureticsMuscle atrophy (sarcopenia)Reduced food intakeIncontinencePoor memory and cognitionLack of movementVarious medicationsAlcohol Overall health and wellbeing is significantly impacted by hydration levels.  Water contains electrolytes, which aid all the systems of the body to function.  When th…

Polypharmacy (multiple meds.) Effects

Polypharmacy poses a risk for Falls, Mobility and GI tract disturbances

What is it?
Polypharmacy is the regular co-prescription of multiple drugs
These can include anti-depressants, benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety, anti-seizure, sleep disorders), pain medications, diuretics, heart medications and anticoagulants.

Quick Facts The use of 4 or more drugs co-prescribed can pose a risk for increased falls and severity of falls.(Dhalwani, N.N., Fahami, R., Sathanapally, H., Seidu, S., Davies, M.J., & Khunti, K. 2017. Association between polypharmacy and falls in older adults: a longitudinal study from England, British Medical Journal, 7)
Risks of damage such as hip fractures is 23 times higher.(Lai, S.W., Liao, K.F., Muo, C.H., Liu, C.S., & Sung, F.C. 2012. Polypharmacy correlates with increased risk for hip fracture in the elderly: a population-based study, Medicine, 85(5):295-9. ) 
When a new drug complication is mistaken as a new medical problem and an additional drug is prescribed which p…

I do NOT want to Fall !

Similar to the health complications associated with muscle loss...FALLING for older adults, is the most common reason for hospitalization and later immobility!

Why Do Falls occur?

Falls most often occur in and around the home, or during your activities of daily living.There are a huge number of factors that contribute to an unexpected fall. Fall risk factors include:

Intrinsic Factors (specific to each person): Age-related changes in physical function, chronic disease (i.e. diabetes or dementia or arthritis), adverse reactions to prescribed medications (or polypharmacy), being dehydrated, having a bad sleep, etc.

Extrinsic Factors (specific to one’s immediate environment): Type of flooring in your home, uneven or damaged walkways, clutter, moving objects, weather related conditions (i.e. ice or slush)

Situational Factors (Related to the activity being performed): Rushing to get out of the house or to the washroom, using unsafe methods of retrieving objects on a tall shelf, reacting to unex…

MUSCLE Loss leads to Disease - Part 2

Unfortunately much of what are told to do
(which appears to be the easiest things)is ineffective for preventing or reversing Sarcopenia.

Things like:
-no resistance chair exercise
-light swimming or group aquafit
-light weight circuit training

The above has health value, just not for treating muscle loss.

Now that we know...
            WHAT do we do?

First we need to further understand more about muscle loss:
With age changes in skeletal muscle fiber type and size occur with a decrease of Type 2 (fast twitch) and fat tissue infiltration into the muscle (Walston, 2012)After the age of 30, adults begin to lose 3-8% of their muscle mass every decade which results in a loss of muscle strength and power in addition to reduced mass (English & Paddon-Jones, 2012). Up to 50% of muscle mass can be lost by the 8th decade (Walston, 2012)Muscle weakness is:
...consistently reported as an independent risk factor for high mortality in older adults
...the most important cause of functional decline…